|M. J. McDonald, et al.|
This report describes the Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE) technology—developed at Sandia National Laboratories—to investigate Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) vulnerabilities associated with energy systems; and it describes a set of experiments with findings from using that environment. The report explains how VCSE can be used to analyze and develop an understanding of cyber attacks. Specific analyses in this report focus on unencrypted, unsecured data channels on Internet protocol (IP)-routed computer networks within electric power systems.