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Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience
Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Brendan Kirby - Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Michael Kintner-Meyer - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

This study examines the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. The objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

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