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Microgrids: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources into the Smart-Grid
Guerrero, Josep M.

This paper appears in: Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on
Issue Date: 4-7 July 2010
On page(s): 4281 - 4414
Location: Bari
Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-6390-9
• Droop-controlled microgrids can be used in islanded mode. • New concept of flexible microgrids can operate in both grid-connected and islanded mode. • Improvements to the conventional droop method are required for integrate inverter-based energy resources: • Improvement of the transient response • Virtual impedance: harmonic power sharing and hot-swapping • Adaptive droop control laws • The hierarchical control is required for a AC microgrid, analogous as those proposed in the DC-coupled microgrid: • Primary control is based on the droop method allowing the connection of different AC sources without any intercommunication. • Secondary control avoids the voltage and frequency deviation produced by the primary control. Only low bandwidth communications are needed to perform this control level. A synchronization loop can be add in this level to transfer from islanding to grid connected modes. • Tertiary control allows to import/export active and reactive power to the grid. • Additional features are also required to the flexible microgrids: • Voltage ride-through • Black-start operation • Grid impedance estimation • Storage energy management and control

Document Type:
Technical paper