This document presents the various of waves of programs for energy efficiency since, 1973. The first one was named "energy conservation." The second one is "demand-side management (DSM)," in which incentives, in various forms, were offered to encourage the use of better equipment in terms of energy efficiency. The third wave, called "demand response (DR)," was induced by the energy crisis in the years 2001 and 2001. DR programs incentivize consumers to curtail their usage during the peak times. A new fourth wave, called integrated DSM or iDSM, is upon us now, whose programs are emphasizing on consumer awareness regarding their energy expenses. These programs have received wide acceptance and energy efficient homes, lamps, etc. are being ubiquitous. Besides residential customers, commercial and industrial facilities are being benefited from these iDSM programs.
This writing also contains discussion about a survey--conducted on experts--about the expected saving in energy consumption by 2020. Overall, energy efficiency is expected to lower electricity consumption by 5 to 10 percent, peak demand by 7.5 to 15 percent and natural gas consumption by 5 to 10 percent. The document also specifies what drivers are behind this achievement.