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Priority Action Plan - On the basis of stakeholder input received at two public workshops as well as its reviews of research reports and other relevant literature, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is proposing a set of priorities for developing standards necessary to build an interoperable Smart Grid. Among the criteria for inclusion on this initial list were immediacy of need, relevance to high-priority Smart Grid functionalities,availability of existing standards to respond to the need, state of the deployment of affected technologies, and estimated time frame to achieve an effective solution. To facilitate timely and effective responses to these needs, NIST has drafted a preliminary Priority Action Plan (PAP) for each need. The PAPs are intended to scope out problem areas and to begin clarifying the steps required for achieving solutions. Source: NIST
Power Electronic Application Center - In 1986, EPRI established the Power Electronics Applications Center (PEAC) to facilitate the widespread and practical use of power electronics technologies for improving the efficiency and productivity of electricity. Today, the Center has evolved into the EPRI PEAC Corporation, an international cornerstone of power quality services and products. Understanding the needs of electric utilities and their customers in a deregulated market, the EPRI PEAC staff of distinguished engineers and technicians have three main goals: (1) Support electric utilities and their customers in their efforts to understand, diagnose, solve, and prevent power quality problems and improve the efficient use of electricity; (2) Help electric utilities solidify durable, beneficial relationships with their customers, manufacturers, and standards organizations; and (3) Empower utilities and industry with knowledge and tools to compete in an era of deregulation. Source: EPRI - PEAC
Plug-in Electric Vehicles - Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) get their power from the electric grid. There are two kinds of PEVs: (1) Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) use both gasoline and electricity. PHEVs are similar to today’s hybrids but have larger batteries and a plug for charging; and (2) Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) use only electricity. BEVs do not use any gasoline. Source: Austin Energy
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle - Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are hybrid cars with an added battery. As the term suggests, plug-in hybrids - which look and perform much like "regular" cars - can be plugged in to a 120-volt outlet (for instance each night at home, or during the workday at a parking garage) and charged. Plug-ins run on the stored energy for much of a typical day's driving - depending on the size of the battery up to 60 miles per charge, far beyond the commute of an average American - and when the charge is used up, automatically keep running on the fuel in the fuel tank. A person who drives every day a distance shorter than the car's electric range would never have to dip into the fuel tank. Source: Institute for the Analysis of Global Security
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland Interconnection - PJM Interconnection is a regional transmission organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of 13 states and the District of Columbia. Source: PJM
Power Line Carrier - Refers to Communication of meter data and other utility system data through power lines. PLC technology can be part of two-way systems. PLC systems offer electricity and combination utilities a way to collect data and communicate using their existing infrastructure. Using existing infrastructure can reduce overall data and communication costs and, in some cases, simplify implementation of fixed network AMR. Understanding the strengths and limitations of PLC technology is crucial in designing utility information systems. PLC is not the same as Broadband Over Power Line (BPL). Source: MADRI
Peak Load Management Alliance - The Peak Load Management Alliance (PLMA) was formed by a group of organizations with business interests in dealing with the tremendous price fluctuations experienced in the electricity supply markets during the last few years of the twentieth century. These price fluctuations resulted from the market's inability to either generate or transmit a supply of electricity sufficient to meet the demand at certain times. Source: PLMA
Power Marketing Administration - The Federal power marketing program began in the early 1900s when power produced at Federal water projects in excess of project needs was sold in order to repay the Government's investment in the projects. Power Marketing Administrations market this power in such a manner as to encourage the most widespread use thereof at the lowest possible rates to consumers consistent with sound business principles. Each of the four(Bonneville Power Administration, Southeastern Power Administration, Western Area Power Administration, Southwestern Power Administration) power marketing administrations is a distinct and self-contained entity within the Department of Energy, much like a wholly owned subsidiary of a corporation. Source: DOE
Phasor Measurement Unit - Synchronized phasor measurements—also known as phasor measurement units (PMUs)—are ideal for monitoring and controlling dynamic power system performance, especially during high-stress operating conditions.PMU applications—The five major applications include 1) improvement on state estimation, 2) oscillation detection and control, 3) voltage stability monitoring and control, 4) load modeling validation, and 5) system restoration and event analysis. Source: NASPI
Pacific Northwest National Lab - PNNL is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) ten national laboratories, managed by DOE's Office of Science. PNNL also performs research for other DOE offices as well as government agencies, universities, and industry to deliver breakthrough science and technology to meet today's key national needs. The laboratory provides the facilities, unique scientific equipment, and world-renowned scientists/engineers to strengthen U.S. scientific foundations for fundamental research and innovation; prevents and counters acts of terrorism through applied research in information analysis, cyber security, and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction -increases U.S. energy capacity and reduces dependence on imported oil through research of hydrogen and biomass-based fuels; and reduces the effects of energy generation and use on the environment. Source: PNNL
Power Purchase Agreement - A Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) is a financial arrangement in which a third-party developer owns, operates, and maintains the generation system, and a host customer agrees to site the system on its property and purchases the system’s electric output from the energy services provider for a predetermined period. Source: EPA
Power Quality and Reliability - Power reliability can be defined as the degree to which the performance of the elements in a bulk system results in electricity being delivered to customers within accepted standards and in the amount desired. The degree of reliability may be measured by the frequency, duration, and magnitude of adverse effects on the electric supply.There are many indices for measuring reliability. The three most common are referred to as SAIFI, SAIDI, and CAIDI.
The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines power quality as “the concept of powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipment in a manner that is suitable to the operation of that equipment.” Power quality may also be defined as “the measure, analysis, and improvement of bus voltage, usually a load bus voltage, to maintain that voltage to be a sinusoid at rated voltage and frequency.” Source: ORNL
Power Systems Engineering Research Center - As a National Science Foundation Industry-University Cooperative Research Center, the Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) draws on university capabilities to creatively address the challenges facing the electric power industry. Its core purpose is to empower minds to engineer the future electric energy system. Source: PSERC
Power Usage Effectiveness - Power usage effectiveness (PUE) is a metric used to determine the energy efficiency of a data center. PUE is determined by dividing the amount of power entering a data center by the power used to run the computer infrastructure within it. PUE is therefore expressed as a ratio, with overall efficiency improving as the quotient decreases toward 1. PUE was created by members of the Green Grid, an industry group focused on data center energy efficiency. Data center infrastructure efficiency (DCIE) is the reciprocal of PUE and is expressed as a percentage that improves as it approaches 100%. Source: www.TechTarget.com
Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act - A US federal law enacted in 1978 which was intended to encourage more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial energy production. PURPA defined a new class of energy producer called a qualifying facility. QFs are either small-scale producers of commercial energy who normally self-generate energy for their own needs but may have occasional or frequent surplus energy, or incidental producers who happen to generate usable electric energy as a byproduct of other activities. When a facility of this type meets the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's requirements for ownership, size and efficiency, utility companies are obliged to purchase energy from these facilities based on a pricing structure referred to as avoided cost rates. These rates tend to be highly favorable to the producer, and are intended to encourage more production of this type of energy as a means of reducing emissions and dependence on other sources of energy. Source: www.EnergyVortex.com
Photo-Voltaic - Solar cells, also called photovoltaic (PV) cells by scientists, convert sunlight directly into electricity. PV gets its name from the process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage), which is called the PV effect. The PV effect was discovered in 1954, when scientists at Bell Telephone discovered that silicon (an element found in sand) created an electric charge when exposed to sunlight. Source: NREL
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