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System Average Interruption Duration Index - SAIDI, or system average interruption duration index, is commonly referred to as customer minutes of interruption or customer hours, and is designed to provide information as to the average time the customers are interrupted. It is the sum of the restoration time for each interruption event times the number of interrupted customers for each interruption event divided by the total number of customers. Source: ORNL
System Average Interruption Frequency Index - SAIFI, or system average interruption frequency index, is the average frequency of sustained interruptions per customer over a predefined area. It is the total number of customer interruptions divided by the total number of customers served. Source: ORNL
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition - SCADA systems are a type of industrial control system used to collect data and exercise control from a remote location. In the pipeline industry, SCADA systems are used to collect data from pipeline sensors in real time and display these data to humans (controllers) who monitor the data from remote sites. Controllers, in turn can use the SCADA system to input commands that remotely operate pipeline control equipment, such as valves and pumps. SCADA systems are widely used in oil, gas, electricity and municipal water systems. Source: National Transportation Safety Board
Standards Council of Canada - The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) is a federal Crown corporation. It has its mandate to promote efficient and effective standardization in Canada. Located in Ottawa, the Standards Council has a 15-member governing Council and a staff of approximately 90.The organization reports to Parliament through the Minister of Industry and oversees Canada's National Standards System. Source: SCC
Standards Coordinating Committee 31 - One of the driving forces behind the organization of Utilimetrics in 1986 was the need for standardized interfaces between Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) devices. Founding members recognized the importance of creating guidelines that promote the manufacture of interoperable equipment and reduce the risk of equipment obsolescence. In 1990, industry leaders began work to establish interface standards when the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) approved a charter for Standards Coordinating Committee 31 (SCC31). The committee now has several subcommittees and working groups that focus on areas such as security, communications interfaces and information transfer. Utilimetrics provides financial and administrative support for SCC31, and participants pay for travel expenses to in-person meetings. An international group of technical experts who represent utilities, vendors, consultancies, research organizations and educational institutions participate in the standards-development process. IEEE approves and owns all finished standards. Source: Utilimetrics
Substation Configuration Language - The Substation Configuration Language (SCL), IEC61850, defines the interrelationship of the substation equipment to each other and to the substation itself. Although the substation object models define each of the devices in the substation, these device models do not define how the models are interrelated. The SCL uses a standard file format for exchanging information between proprietary configuration tools for substation devices. This standard is based on Extensible Markup Language (XML), and draws on the data modeling concepts found in the other parts of IEC 61850, and the capability of the IEC 61850 protocols to “self-describe” the data to be reported by a particular device. Source: EPRI - Intelligrid
Secure Copy Protocol - SCP stands for Secure Copy. It is a protocol, based on SSH(Secure Shell), which uses a simple Public Key Infrastructure and Encryption to allow users to securely transfer files between Unix Host Systems. Source: Hitachi
Standards Development Organization
Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance - The Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) was initiated in the fall of 1999 bringing together government, industry, and the scientific community to promote the development of environmentally friendly solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) for a variety of energy needs. SECA is an alliance of industry groups who individually plan to commercialize SOFC systems for pre-defined markets; research and development institutions involved in solid-state development activities; and government organizations that provide funding and management for the program. The SECA alliance was formed to accelerate the commercial readiness of SOFCs in the 3 kW to 10 kW for use in stationary, transportation, and military applications. This partnership between the U.S. industry, universities, and other research organizations represents a new model for joint government and private industry technology research and development, and also provides an effective use of funding resources, which is critical to the success of the SECA Program. Source: NETL - DOE
Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance - Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit that brings together businesses, utilities, governments, public utility commissions, energy service companies, manufacturers, retailers, energy and environmental organizations, low-income energy advocates, large energy consumers, and universities to promote energy-efficient policies and practices. Source: SEEA
Southeastern Power Administration - Southeastern Power Administration was created in 1950 by the Secretary of the Interior to carry out the functions assigned to the Secretary by the Flood Control Act of 1944. In 1977, Southeastern was transferred to the newly created United States Department of Energy. Southeastern, headquartered in Elberton, Georgia, is responsible for marketing electric power and energy generated at reservoirs operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. This power is marketed to more than 491 preference customers in the states of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, southern Illinois, Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Source: DOE
Southeast Reliability Corporation - The SERC Reliability Corporation (SERC) is a nonprofit corporation responsible for promoting and improving the reliability, adequacy, and critical infrastructure of the bulk power supply systems in all or portions of 16 central and southeastern states. Owners, operators, and users of the bulk power system in these states cover an area of approximately 560,000 square miles and comprise what is known as the SERC Region. Source: SERC
Secure Hash Algorithm - The Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA-1) developed by NIST, is required for use with the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) as specified in the Digital Signature Standard (DSS) and whenever a secure hash algorithm is required for federal applica- tions. For a message of length < 2^64 bits, the SHA-1 produces a 160-bit condensed representation of the message called a message digest. The message digest is used during generation of a signature for the message. The SHA-1 is also used to compute a message digest for the received version of the message during the process of verifying the signature. Any change to the message in transit will, with very high probability, result in a different message digest, and the signature will fail to verify.
The SHA-1 is designed to have the following properties: it is computationally infeasible to find a message which corresponds to a given message digest, or to find two different messages which produce the same message digest. Source: NIST
System Integrity Protection Schemes - SIPS is a concept of using system information from local as well as relevant remote sites and sending this information to a processing location to counteract propagation of the major disturbances in the power system. With the increased availability of advanced computer, communication and measurement technologies, more “intelligent” equipment can be used at the local level to improve the overall response. Traditional contingency dependant / event based systems could be enhanced to include power system response based algorithms with proper local supervisions for security. Source: EPRI Energy Storage Collaboration">GE
Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage - In a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) system, energy is stored within a magnet that is capable of releasing megawatts of power within a fraction of a cycle to replace a sudden loss in line power.SMES units use liquid helium to keep the coil of niobium-titanium at 4.2K, the temperature required for its material to become superconducting. While in the superconducting state, the conductor material has practically no electrical resistance, which enables the coil to carry large currents with very little loss for long periods of time. Source: www.azom.com
Storage Networking Industry Association - Incorporated in December 1997, the SNIA is a registered 501(c)6 non-profit trade association. Its members are dedicated to developing and promoting standards, technologies, and educational services to empower organizations in the management of information.The SNIA works toward this goal by forming and sponsoring Technical Work Groups (TWGs), producing (with our strategic partner Computerworld) the Storage Networking World Conference series, building and maintaining a vendor neutral Technology Center in Colorado Springs, and promoting activities that expand the breadth and quality of the storage and information management market. The SNIA's ability to accomplish these goals is directly attributed to the dedication and hard work of hundreds of volunteers from our member companies. Source: SNIA
Sandia National Laboratory - Since 1949, Sandia National Laboratories has developed science-based technologies that support national security. Today, the 300+ million Americans depend on Sandia's technology solutions to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Sandia is a government-owned/contractor operated (GOCO) facility. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, manages Sandia for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration. Source: SANDIA.gov
Simple Network Management Protocol - Simple Network Management Protocol is a set of protocols for managing complex networks. The first versions of SNMP were developed in the early 80s. SNMP works by sending messages, called protocol data units (PDUs), to different parts of a network. SNMP-compliant devices, called agents, store data about themselves in Management Information Bases (MIBs) and return this data to the SNMP requesters. Source: Webopedia.com
Simple Network Time Protocol - The Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) Version 4 is an adaptation of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) used to synchronize computer clocks in the Internet. SNTP can be used when the ultimate performance of the full NTP implementation is not needed or justified. When operating with current and previous NTP and SNTP versions, SNTP Version 4 involves no changes to the NTP specification or known implementations, but rather a clarification of certain design features of NTP which allow operation in a simple, stateless remote-procedure call (RPC) mode with accuracy and reliability expectations similar to the UDP/TIME protocol. Source: www.Javvin.com
Service-Oriented Architecture - The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) refers to SOA as 'A set of components which can be invoked, and whose interface descriptions can be published and discovered'. CBDI(Component Based Development and Integration) defines SOA as: "The policies, practices, frameworks that enable application functionality to be provided and consumed as sets of services published at a granularity relevant to the service consumer. Services can be invoked, published and discovered, and are abstracted away from the implementation using a single, standards-based form of interface." Source: Microsoft
Simple Object Access Protocol - SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It is an XML based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelope that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined datatypes, and a convention for representing remote procedure calls and responses. SOAP can potentially be used in combination with a variety of other protocols; however, the only bindings defined in this document describe how to use SOAP in combination with HTTP and HTTP Extension Framework. Source: www.W3.org
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Solid oxide fuel cells differ in many respects from other fuel cell technologies. First, they are composed of all-solid-state materials--the anode, cathode and electrolyte are all made from ceramic substances. Second, because of the all-ceramic make-up, the cells can operate at temperatures as high as 1,800 degrees F (1,000 degrees C), significantly hotter than any other major category of fuel cell. This produces exhaust gases at temperatures ideal for use in combined heat and power applications and combined-cycle electric power plants. Third, the cells can be configured either as rolled tubes (tubular) or as flat plates (planar) and manufactured using many of the techniques now employed today by the electronics industry. Source: DOE
Special Publication - Special Publications in the 800 series present documents of general interest to the computer security community. The Special Publication 800 series was established in 1990 to provide a separate identity for information technology security publications. The Special Publication 800 series reports on ITL's research, guidelines, and outreach efforts in computer security, and its collaborative activities with industry, government, and academic organizations. Source: NIST
Southwest Power Pool - SPP is a Regional Transmission Organization, mandated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to ensure reliable supplies of power, adequate transmission infrastructure, and competitive wholesale prices of electricity. As a North American Electric Reliability Corporation Regional Entity, SPP oversees enforcement and development of reliability standards. SPP has members in nine states. Source: SPP
Software Requirements Specification - An SRS is basically an organization's understanding (in writing) of a customer or potential client's system requirements and dependencies at a particular point in time (usually) prior to any actual design or development work. It's a two-way insurance policy that assures that both the client and the organization understand the other's requirements from that perspective at a given point in time.
The SRS document itself states in precise and explicit language those functions and capabilities a software system (i.e., a software application, an eCommerce Web site, and so on) must provide, as well as states any required constraints by which the system must abide. The SRS also functions as a blueprint for completing a project with as little cost growth as possible. The SRS is often referred to as the "parent" document because all subsequent project management documents, such as design specifications, statements of work, software architecture specifications, testing and validation plans, and documentation plans, are related to it. Source: www.TechWR-L.com
Secure Shell - Secure Shell (SSH), sometimes known as Secure Socket Shell, is a Unix-based command interface and protocol for securely getting access to a remote computer. It is widely used by network administrators to control Web and other kinds of servers remotely. SSH is actually a suite of three utilities - slogin, ssh, and scp - that are secure versions of the earlier UNIX utilities, rlogin, rsh, and rcp. SSH commands are encrypted and secure in several ways. Both ends of the client/server connection are authenticated using a digital certificate, and passwords are protected by being encrypted.
SSH uses RSA public key cryptography for both connection and authentication. Encryption algorithms include Blowfish, DES, and IDEA. IDEA is the default.SSH2, the latest version, is a proposed set of standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Source: Webopedia.com
Sector Specific Plan -The Energy Sector-Specific Plan (SSP) details the application of the NIPP’s(National Infrastructure Protection Plan) overall risk management framework to the Energy Sector. The Energy SSP describes a collaborative process between the private sector, state, local, and tribal governments, nongovernmental organizations, and the Federal Government. This collaboration is intended to help DOE in the prioritization of its protection and preparedness initiatives and investments within and across sectors. This prioritization is intended to help ensure that government resources are applied where they offer the most benefit for mitigating risk by lowering vulnerabilities, deterring threats, minimizing the consequences of attacks and other incidences, and enhancing recovery. Source: DOE
Standing Standard Project Committee
Static Compensator - The function of static compensator is similar to that of a synchronous condenser. In general, it provides reactive power compensation to solve a variety of power system and industrial system voltage fluctuation and stability conditions. A complete STATCOM systems basically consists of DC voltage source, self-commutated converters using GCT thyristors and a step-up transformer. Source: Mitsubishi Electric Power Prodcuts, Inc.
Static VAR Compensator - A Static Var Compensator (SVC) can continuously provide the reactive power required to control dynamic voltage swings under various system conditions and thereby improve the power system transmission and distribution performance. Installing an SVC at one or more suitable points in the network can increase transfer capability and reduce losses while maintaining a smooth voltage profile under different network conditions. In addition, an SVC can mitigate active power oscillations through voltage amplitude modulation. Source: ABB
Southwest Energy Efficiency Project - The Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) is a public interest organization promoting greater energy efficiency in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. This is a high growth region where energy efficiency efforts have been lagging compared to some other regions, air pollution is a growing concern, and new power plants are planned including some new coal-fired power plants. Source: SWEEP
Southwestern Power Administration - Southwestern Power Administration was established in 1943 by the Secretary of the Interior as a Federal Agency that today operates within the Department of Energy under the authority of Section 5 of the Flood Control Act of 1944. As one of four Power Marketing Administrations in the United States, Southwestern markets hydroelectric power in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas from 24 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers multipurpose dams. Source: SWPA
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