Advanced meters with communication are necessary to facilitate California Energy Commission (Commission) pricing and program objectives and to support improved customer energy investment and operating decisions. Market-based rates and advanced metering together provide customers with demand-response capability that can link wholesale and retail markets in ways that mitigate system reliability and price volatility. In addition to the demand-side benefit, advanced metering provides general business and operating advantages that on their own appear to cost justify investment and implementation. Not withstanding this experience, utilities and regulators often cite cost, technology or other factors as barriers to implementation. This report presents a summary of metering technology and cost information from past studies in an attempt to identify key barriers to more widespread implementation. The author concludes that institutional and a narrowly defined cost/benefit methodology, not technology or cost, are the principle barriers to future implementation.